This literature review discusses community-oriented policing (COP) and problem-oriented policing (POP) in two separate sections which provide definitions of the approaches are provided, along with discussions on theory, examples of specific types of programs, overlaps with other policing strategies, and outcome evidence.
This literature review discusses community-oriented policing (COP) and problem-oriented policing (POP) in two separate sections. COP is a broad policing strategy that relies heavily on community involvement and partnerships, and on police presence in the community, to address local crime and disorder. POP provides law enforcement agencies with an analytic method to develop strategies to prevent and reduce crime and disorder, which involves problem identification, analysis, response, and assessment. The authors state that despite their differences, including the intensity of focus and diversity of approaches, there are several important similarities and as a result, the two often overlap in implementation. The authors note several examples of limitations in the research examining the effectiveness of these models, including: evaluation studies on COP and POP tend to focus on results related to crime and disorder; other outcomes, such as collective efficacy, police legitimacy, fear of crime, and other community-related outcomes are often overlooked or not properly defined. Despite these limitations, however, the authors conclude that outcome evidence supports the effectiveness of COP and POP interventions to reduce crime and disorder outcomes, although exploring other community-related outcomes would likely be useful.